Tectonic plate movements are the reason for the creation and movements of the mountains. It also shifts the mountains in the earth’s crust.
The latest study from the University of Bristol determines that rainfall can move mountains. The study determining the most gigantic mountain ranges ( The Himalayas) also showed the way for anticipating the impact of rainfall in various landscapes and human life. The effect of the raindrops over the mountains was noted by the researchers and the conclusion was published in Science Advances.
Dr. Byron Adams, stated “It may seem intuitive that more rain can shape mountains by making rivers cut down into rocks faster. But scientists have also believed rain can erode a landscape quickly enough to essentially ‘suck’ the rocks out of the Earth, effectively pulling mountains up very quickly.”
“Both these theories have been debated for decades because the measurements required to prove them are so painstakingly complicated. That’s what makes this discovery such an exciting breakthrough, as it strongly supports the notion that atmospheric and solid earth processes are intimately connected.”
In the latest study, it has been shown exactly how the mountains are affected by rain and how is it creating peaks and digging valleys over so many years.
The study was determined in the central and eastern Himalayas of Bhutan and Nepal as these places have become one of the most sampled landscapes for erosion rate applications.
Dr. Byron Adams along with Arizona State University (ASU) and Louisiana State University, measured the speed at which rivers erode the rocks by using the cosmic clocks within sand grains.
“When a cosmic particle from outer space reaches Earth, it is likely to hit sand grains on hillslopes as they are transported toward rivers. When this happens, some atoms within each grain of sand can transform into a rare element. By counting how many atoms of this element are present in a bag of sand, we can calculate how long the sand has been there, and therefore how quickly the landscape has been eroding,” said Dr. Byron Adams
He also added “Once we have erosion rates from all over the mountain range, we can compare them with variations in river steepness and rainfall. However, such a comparison is hugely problematic because each data point is very difficult to produce and the statistical interpretation of all the data together is complicated.”
He solved the problem by the combination of a former or less developed state with various numerical models of how rivers get destroyed.
Dr. Byron Adams said “We tested a wide variety of numerical models to reproduce the observed erosion rate pattern across Bhutan and Nepal. Ultimately only one model was able to accurately predict the measured erosion rates.
He further added, “This model allows us for the first time to quantify how rainfall affects erosion rates in rugged terrain.”
The data obtained from the study carries an important conclusion for the organized land use, preservation of infrastructure, and the dangers and risk in the Himalayas. The research was financed by the Royal Society, the UK (NERC), and the (NSF) of the US.
Dr. Byron Adams stated, “With our cutting-edge techniques to measure erosion rates and rock properties, we will be able to better understand how rivers and volcanoes have influenced each other in the past.”
He further added, “This will help us to more accurately anticipate what is likely to happen after future volcanic eruptions and how to manage the consequences for communities living nearby.”
After this valuable research, Dr. Byron Adams is now analyzing how the landscapes acknowledge after a large volcanic outbreak.
Source – bristol